Different Parenting Styles

Different Parenting Styles

Different Parenting Styles

Each parent has a different approach to raising their children which is usually influenced by their own upbringing and the lifestyle they lead. While some parents don’t give it much thought, others want to make sure that their parenting style ensures that their child grows up to fulfil their potential.

There are 4 recognised parenting styles that can positively or negatively affect a child’s development:

Authoritarian parenting

Authoritarian parenting is the strictest parenting style where the adult sets the rules and the child has to obey them to avoid facing punishment. Because of the fear of consequences in case they make a mistake, a child might come across as more well-behaved than their peers.

Unfortunately, this kind of parenting style rarely involves guidance on how to express one’s emotions so a child who was raised in a strict household might struggle to manage anger and is often unable to make their own decisions. In some cases, this method might have the opposite of the desired effect and a child might rebel against the authority in the future. [1]

Authoritative parenting

Unlike the authoritarian parenting style, authoritative parenting is nurturing and involves building a close relationship with a child by prioritising praise instead of punishment. Parents who rely on this parenting style also place importance on communication skills; for example, they offer an explanation as to why certain behaviours are wrong and some rules have to be enforced, which allows a child to develop self-awareness and morals.

While a parent is in charge, they make sure to acknowledge their child’s feelings and opinions. As a result, a child grows up to have more stable self-esteem and achieve higher academic performance. [2] [3]

Permissive parenting

While parents who rely on an authoritative parenting style have high but realistic expectations of their children, permissive parenting is associated with low expectations meaning that while rules are set they are rarely enforced. A permissive parent acts more like a friend than a parent; they’re involved in a child’s life and encourage them to open up but give them too much freedom that can have repercussions in the future.

Even though permissive parents might use consequences, they aren’t good at reinforcing them and often avoid making a child upset, which can result in negative habits such as an unhealthy diet and lead to behavioural problems. [4] [5]

Uninvolved parenting

Uninvolved parenting means that a parent is detached from a child’s life and gives them little attention and guidance. This parenting style is typical of parents who have demanding jobs or mental health issues; they might not have the time and mental capacity to play with their child and prioritise their own needs. If a child grows up without a nurturing parent, they’re forced to become more independent and self-sufficient than other children, however, lack of parental affection might also mean that they’ll have low self-esteem and struggle with relationships in the future. [6]

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[1] https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/development-and-psychopathology/article/abs/coercive-family-process-and-earlyonset-conduct-problems-from-age-2-to-school-entry/4C24A6278FC2DAD1457F6CB64B9F95B0
[2] https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1998-12495-009 
[3] http://www.scihub.org/AJSMS/PDF/2011/3/AJSMS-2-3-278-282.pdf
[4] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7529118/
[5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339084/
[6] https://www.mdpi.com/2075-4698/4/3/506/htm

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